network layer esy to understand

TCP/IPThe Internet Protocol Suite, popularly known as the TCP/IP model, is a communication protocol that is used over the Internet. This model divides the entire networking functions into layers, where each layer performs a specific function.

This model gives a brief idea about the process of data formatting, transmission, and finally the reception. Each of these functions take place in the layers, as described by the model. TCP/IP is a four-layered structure, with each layer having their individual protocol. Let us have a look at the four layers:

Link Layer

As the name suggests, this layer includes the physical and logical connections from the host’s link. It is also known as Network Access layer and Network Interface layer. It explains how the data is transmitted from the host, through the network. The physical connectors like the coaxial cables, twisted pair wires, the optical fiber, interface cards, etc., are a part of this layer. This layer can be used to connect different network types like ATM, Token ring, Ethernet, LAN, etc.

Internet Layer

This layer is also known as the Network Layer. The main function of this layer is to route the data to its destination. The data that is received by the link layer is made into data packets (IP datagrams). The data packets contain the source and the destination IP address or logical address. These packets are sent on any network and are delivered independently. This indicates that the data is not received in the same order as it was sent. The protocols at this layer are IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), etc.

Transport Layer

This layer is responsible for providing datagram services to the Application layer. This layer allows the host and the destination devices to communicate with each other for exchanging messages, irrespective of the underlying network type. Error control, congestion control, flow control, etc., are handled by the transport layer. The protocol that this layer uses is TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP gives a reliable, end-to-end, connection-oriented data transfer, while UDP provides unreliable, connectionless data transfer between two computers.

Application Layer

It provides the user interface for communication. This is the layer where email, web browsers or FTP run. The protocols in this layer are FTP, SMTP, HTTP, etc.

Read more at Buzzle: OSI
Implementation of OSI model Reference model
Model around which Internet is developed This is a theoretical model
Has only 4 layers Has 7 layers
Considered more reliable Considered a reference tool
Protocols are not strictly defined Stricter boundaries for the protocols
Horizontal approach Vertical approach
Combines the session and presentation layer in the application layer Has separate session and presentation layer
Protocols were developed first and then the model was developed Model was developed before the development of protocols
Supports only connectionless communication in the network layer Supports connectionless and connection-oriented communication in the network layer
Protocol dependent standard Protocol independent standard
Read more at Buzzle: 
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how to import more than 2 mb to 1024 mb data base file in phpmyadmin

how to import more than 2 mb to 1024 mb data base file in phpmyadmin

I tried and i got the error message saying the size is greater. I tried with php.ini and increased the size of upload

===================

change upload_max_filesize 2M  to 1024M

==================

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.
; http://php.net/upload-max-filesize
  upload_max_filesize = 300M

Find:
===========================

post_max_size = 8M
upload_max_filesize = 2M
max_execution_time = 30
max_input_time = 60
memory_limit = 8M

==============================

Change to:

post_max_size = 1024M
upload_max_filesize = 1024M
max_execution_time = 5000
max_input_time = 5000
memory_limit = 1000M 

check malware in windows using cmd

check malware in windows using cmd


  • Since you cannot see this file nor delete it (because the attributes that was set on these files are +s +h +r)
  • +s – meaning it is a system file (which also means that you cannot delete it just by using the delete command)
  • +h – means it is hidden (so you cannot delete it)

  • +r – means it is a read only file 

Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.10240]
(c) 2015 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

C:\Users\admin>..
‘..’ is not recognized as an internal or external command,
operable program or batch file.

C:\Users\admin>cd..

C:\Users>cd..

C:\>attrib
A  SHR       C:\bootmgr
A  SH        C:\BOOTNXT
A            C:\HaxLogs.txt
A  SH   I    C:\hiberfil.sys
A  SH        C:\pagefile.sys
A  SH        C:\swapfile.sys

C:\>attrib +s
Not resetting hidden file – C:\bootmgr
Not resetting hidden file – C:\BOOTNXT
Access denied – C:\HaxLogs.txt
Not resetting hidden file – C:\hiberfil.sys
Not resetting hidden file – C:\pagefile.sys
Not resetting hidden file – C:\swapfile.sys

C:\>attrib +h
Not resetting system file – C:\bootmgr
Not resetting system file – C:\BOOTNXT
Access denied – C:\HaxLogs.txt
Not resetting system file – C:\hiberfil.sys
Not resetting system file – C:\pagefile.sys
Not resetting system file – C:\swapfile.sys

C:\>attrib +r
Not resetting hidden file – C:\bootmgr
Not resetting hidden file – C:\BOOTNXT
Access denied – C:\HaxLogs.txt
Not resetting hidden file – C:\hiberfil.sys
Not resetting hidden file – C:\pagefile.sys
Not resetting hidden file – C:\swapfile.sys

C:\>

WebForms UnobtrusiveValidationMode requires a ScriptResourceMapping for ‘jquery’. Please add a ScriptResourceMapping named jquery(case-sensitive).

WebForms UnobtrusiveValidationMode requires a ScriptResourceMapping for ‘jquery’. Please add a ScriptResourceMapping named jquery(case-sensitive).




how to solve asp. net c# error

easy to solve

step 1. change your web config. file

put this code  in web config- 

   
 










web.config 

<!–
  For more information on how to configure your ASP.NET application, please visit
  –>
   
     
     
   
   
 

how to view email sender orignal public ip address

                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                     
Delivered-To: sanjaymakwan–@gmail.com
Received: by 10.200.35.171 with SMTP id q40csp290498qtq;
        Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:57 -0700 (PDT)
X-Received: by 10.28.63.134 with SMTP id m128mr144906wma.97.1465580037428;
        Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:57 -0700 (PDT)
Return-Path:
Received: from mail-wm0-f43.google.com (mail-wm0-f43.google.com. [74.125.82.43])
        by mx.google.com with ESMTPS id on1si13487936wjc.56.2016.06.10.10.33.57
        for
        (version=TLS1_2 cipher=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 bits=128/128);
        Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:57 -0700 (PDT)
Received-SPF: pass (google.com: domain of nire—-@gmail.com designates 74.125.82.– as permitted sender) client-ip=74.125.82.43;
Authentication-Results: mx.google.com;
       dkim=pass header.i=@gmail.com;
       spf=pass (google.com: domain of niren@gmail.com designates 74.125.82.– as permitted sender) smtp.mailfrom=nirenpa@gmail.com;
       dmarc=pass (p=NONE dis=NONE) header.from=gmail.com
Received: by mail-wm0-f43.google.com with SMTP id n184so80wmn.1
        for ; Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:57 -0700 (PDT)
DKIM-Signature: v=1; a=rsa-sha256; c=relaxed/relaxed;
        d=gmail.com; s=20120113;
        h=mime-version:in-reply-to:references:from:date:message-id:subject:to;
        bh=51tayEgQ6hbLiAvkD/GQcv+edYynvXrYCu3lj5LFz5s=;
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         m9082syNyaO9V+dZxqanlmQdDGoMLc18xGzgBs2mA4i14g+3oZ+lm3tXL8SFba47ipud
         87mekaP19OjDKQYKkhXXSCVgwwZ8tzMdXQTP//+JMyEKD4pyvFQV5dCgANvOVmI0SWpH
         7zJoSZDlnMGzFL1Ea6CF0hyrYk+fzGa92hTwwkZeb15KUh5gp6jJFVN9gHkr24IQlG6U
         DJxrza2g7mS/ZuT3mwuvBIbmhTitYxSKk8aR+Oh1btzrI3Re6mIOBDMFT3EtGKTwxzPp
         dOtw==
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        d=1e100.net; s=20130820;
        h=x-gm-message-state:mime-version:in-reply-to:references:from:date
         :message-id:subject:to;
        bh=51tayEgQ6hbLiAvkD/GQcv+edYynvXrYCu3lj5LFz5s=;
        b=g8m+9LtIVtITvEFm52DK6ZfMAlC6sMl0G8b++DvwzdAuHoKeiOYNOz2/jdUE4Wej9z
         /Tyo7Bb5v5SuHyBhe80/7RuGLR2vdL6OvF5m8yLStYLf8Y5+T0W8hBa6Las5O3mVxGuG
         WCIMiUAWM98327gBA8EK3VCkKy4OhmzqogwsBPhQ4CHwHq02WNuahoGTdnHrnbBS4B9z
         pKIKsfaPDQWVgRt1ENcB8ZXOdblCAy02B5qqEyV9FCaH5U5SbYuBB/7ws/JOV6qbshjZ
         HWh2AIaTuaFw6ziDGX1R0kqLZ2kMuHT415eRoULl7U1Yru6v1BcvDEe/PU+KITvAzUBd
         jUrA==
X-Gm-Message-State: ALyK8tI3DqoQYKQp8RwZwaKOYPk78c1S/QSfkGU3gbnTozslKPbnKv2RFlLDjVP2at5r5TwojWvLIsIQJSK55Q==
X-Received: by 10.194.120.69 with SMTP id la5mr3561036wjb.152.1465580037001;
 Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:57 -0700 (PDT)
MIME-Version: 1.0
Received: by 10.28.54.228 with HTTP; Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:33:56 -0700 (PDT)
In-Reply-To:
References:
From: Niren Panchal
Date: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 23:03:56 +0530
Message-ID:
Subject: Re:
To: sanjaymakwa—@gmail.com
Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=089e011828287ed87f0534eff194

–089e011828287ed87f0534eff194
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
Name : Y
collage :  CLLAGE OF ENGINEERING
On Fri, Jun 10, 2016 at 11:02 PM, >
wrote:
> Name : Pail.com
> department : INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY
> Collage : Gec
>
>