### How To Become a Gate Topper ?

The Famous __‘__**Gate Topper**__‘ ____Algorithm__ will help you to organize your study :

** Check topics from this post.**

Study them from any standard textbook , if not understand go with nptel

** Try a couple of simple questions from end chapters to know if you understand basics of that topic**

Try gate previous years related questions

If you find some questions in gate papers not related to the topic you studied, go back to step 2

**C + DataStructure**

__Important Points :__

This is the most important subject according to GATE point of you. Approximately 25% Questions in Gate come from above topics and all are related with each other. If you are good in this subject this will not only help you in GATE but also after it in so many written exams and interviews of Different IITs and IIITs.

**C programming Questions are mostly based on finding outputs which contain some pointers, static variables, arrays, strings, functions etc. So the best way to practice C programming question is take questions from different books, try to solve them and try to do programming on Compiler. It will increase your skills and accuracy. Very high chances of common data questions. So if you are not good at programming start practice from now.**

**Understand Different Problems on Stack, Queue, Link List. Generally they come in a C program, But you can solve them only if you know the logic. Properties of Heap. Deletion and insertion of items in the heap.**

**Practice Tree problems like no of leaf nodes, non leaf nodes, total nodes, height of the tree, no of full nodes, mirror image, etc. AVL tree and balancing them on insertion and Deletion. **

**Binary tree, Binary Search Tree, Inorder, Preorder, Postorder traversal. Spanning Trees, Minimum Spanning Tree problems.**

__Finding Complexity : __

**Very Important Topic. You need to practice more and with every problem you solved. Sometimes direct question comes related to complexity like give complexity of Heap sort. But mostly you are given a code or question. You need to find best average case complexity of that problem. So try to find complexity of every algorithm or program which you practice. Also understand properties of complexity. Sometimes relation between them is asked.**

**Searching and Sorting Problems. Difference between Different Techniques and how to apply them on different real life problems.**

**Questions on approach of dynamic programming, Divide and Conquer, Greedy and Brute Force. Practice basic problems like quick sort, merge sort, knapsack problem, matrix chain multiplication, LCS, Job sequencing, Compressing Mechanism. It will help you to solve other tricky problems.**

**Basic Theory of P-NP class**

**Operating System**

Syllabus : Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization,

Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O

systems, Protection and security.

__Important Points :__

**Scheduling : Numerical Questions have more chances. Practice more in finding turn**

**around time and waiting time of different scheduling policies.**

** Deadlock : Bankers Algo, Given Sequence is safe or not. Chances of common data**

**or linked questions.**

** Synchronization : High Probability Of Questions in exam. Practice some question**

**related to semaphores and classical problems of synchronization (this will help you to solve other questions).**

** Memory Management : Questions generally comes from page table size, number of**

**pages, logical address, physical address, page size, inverted page table, virtual memory,**

**TLB etc.**

**Theory Of Computation **:

Syllabus : Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Push-down

automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines, Undecidability.

__Important Points :__

** Finite Automata covers approximately 50% questions from TOC. So give it more time then others. Do questions realted to finding minimum number of states, NFA to DFA conversion, Closure Properties of finite automata, Finding Regular Expressions,mealy moore machine etc.**

** In Context free grammer practice more on simplification of CFG, pushdown automata, closure properties etc.**
** Do problems on finding category of any language or grammar.**
** Concepts related to expressive power of different languages.**
** Basic problems related to NP-Completeness. Properties of Recursive and Recursive Enumerable Languages.**
** Turing Machine making and expressive power of different type of turing machine. ( also useful for interview ).**

**Compiler Design**

__Important Points :__

** Parsing : there is always a question related to parsing. You need to practice all parsing technique because there is also chances for linked questions. finding first and follow,**

**LL(1)-LR(1)-SLR-LALR-CLR.**

** Precedence and Associativity of operators.**
** Finding value from expression tree.**
** Ambiguous grammar.**

**Databases**

__Important Points :__

** No gate paper completed without Normalization. This is very easy once you understand and can solve questions quickly. Questions are like Finding normal form ( comes 70% times in gate paper ), finding candidate keys, decomposition of relation, loss less join and dependency preservation have more probability to come.**

** SQL Queries also asked in the paper. Practice select clause properly with properties of having,group by, any ,all, exits. Question may come with relational algebra in common**

**data section.**

** Practice joins because there is more probability of tricky questions from them.**
** Finding View and Conflict serializability. Finding Recoverable and Cascade schedule.lock based, Two phase, time stamp and graph based protocal with there properties**

**like deadlock freedom, starvation freedom.**

**formation and structure of B and B+ tress. primary and clustering index. Numerical**

**Questions from no of block required in indexing of different type, collision resolution,**

**minimum and maximum no of nodes in B,B+ trees.**

**Digital Logic**

Syllabus : Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and

sequential circuits; Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

__Important Points :__

** Digital logic contains very simple questions. If you practice and use your brain in a**

**right way you can do them easily.**

** Practice K-Map. very high chances of very simple question. Don’t loose your marks**

**here.**

** Practice Multiplexer, De-multiplexer, Encoder, Decoder questions.**
** Understand concept of flip flop. They are given and modulas of counter is asked.**
** Practice questions related to Floating Point representation, integer representation,**

**ieee format, range and precision.**

**Computer Organization and Architecture**

Syllabus : Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control

design, Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining,

Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.

__Important Points :__

** Addressing Modes : Theory and questions**
** Numerical related to program counter after some instruction, no of one address-two**

**address instructions, Values after shift and rotate instructions, horizontal and vertical**

**programming related questions.**

** Numerical Problems on Speed up of pipeline, time taken to complete instruction in**

**pipeline and non-pipeline architectures, Hazards in pipeline, hazards removal, branch**

**penalty etc.**

** Numerical Problems on cache memory organization, mapping technique, multilevel**

**caches, write through and write back technique**

** Questions are more tricky in this subject. So you need to practice more on different**

**types of Numerical Questions.**

**Computer Network**

Syllabus : ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control

techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP(v4),

Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basic concepts of hubs,

switches, gateways, and routers. Network security – basic concepts of public key and private

key cryptography, digital signature, firewalls.

__Important Points :__

** Addressing related questions : Subnet address, supernet address, brodcast address,**

**range of network, no of host, classless addressing, non continuous addresses, first host and**

**last host finding etc.**

** Properties Of Circuit Switching and packet switching, Routing Protocols and**

**Numerical Problems on them.**

** Flow Control and Error Control Policies. Numerical Problems on Window Size, No Of**

**Sequence bits, frame size, bandwidth, round trip time, utilization, Hamming Distance, CRC.**

**Congestion Control policies like slow start, congestion avoidence and Congestion Detection.**

** IP Header , TCP and UDP header format, theory related to Ethernet and token ring.**
** Basics Of Different Type of protocols like : FTP, HTTP, DHCP, ARP, RARP, SMTP,**

**ICMP,POP**

** Basic Concepts of Cryptography and firewalls.**

**Information System and Software Engineering**

Syllabus : information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams,

process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the

project, design, coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.

__Important Points :__

** This Subject is more related with theory. So better collect some institutes notes on**

**this subjects or prepare yourself.**

** Numerical Problem may come from COCOMO model, cyclomatic complexity etc.**
** Study Different Models and there properties along with difference between them.**

**Data flow Diagrams are also important.**

**Engineering Mathematics**

Syllabus

Probability: Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation;

Random Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson,

Binomial.

Mathematical Logic: Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.

Set Theory & Algebra: Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders;

Lattice; Boolean Algebra.

Combinatorics: Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating

functions; recurrence relations; asymptotics.

Graph Theory: Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering;

matching; independent sets; Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism.

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations,

Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Numerical Methods: LU decomposition for systems of linear equations; numerical

solutions of non-linear algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-

Raphson Methods; Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.

Calculus: Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems

of integral calculus, evaluation of definite & improper integrals, Partial

derivatives, Total derivatives, maxima & minima.

__Important Topics :__

** For probability questions You need to practice Bays theorem, Normal**

**and poisson distribution, mean and variance of different distributions.**

** Different types of graph and there properties, graph coloring,**

**isomorphism between graphs, Planner Graphs, Euler and Hamiltonian Graphs**

**and some tricky problems which need practice to solve them.**

** Eigen values and eigen vectors question. Simple questions related to**

**matrix.**

** Finding Values of variable with some properties of linear equations**

**like infinite no of solutions or unique solution.**

** Newton Rapson Method and its application. Numerical Integration by**

**different methods.**

** Finding Maxima and Minima. Properties of limit, Continuity and**

**differentiability. Finding values by Mean Value Theorem. Integration.**

** Properties of relation, function. Partial and Total Ordering. Hasse**

**Diagrams, Group Theory. Sets Related Questions.**

** Tricky Problems on Permutations and Combinations. Pigeonhole**

**principle.**

** Simple problems on logic.**

**General Aptitude**

Syllabus :

Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,

instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data

interpretation.

__Important Points :__

** Problems on Antonym, Synonym, Summary from paragraph, same or different pairs,**

**Ordering of words, sentences etc.**

** Problems on time and work, distance, data interpretation number system, percentages,**

**clocks, coding and decoding, Venn Diagram, cubes, blood relation, Directions, Number odd**

**man out, Boats and pipes etc.**

** Quantitative and verbal reasoning –By R.S. Agarwal**